cadmium zinc metallothionein

cadmium zinc metallothionein

cadmium zinc metallothionein

  • Metallothionein - Wikipedia

    OverviewStructure and classificationYeastFunctionExpression and regulationMetallothionein and diseaseSee alsoFurther reading

    Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins. They are localized to the membrane of the Golgi apparatus. MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, silver, arsenic) heavy metals through the thiol group of its cysteine residues, which represent nearly 30% of its constituent amino acid residues.

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  • Metallothionein synthesis and degradation: relationship to ...

    Metallothionein is an integral component of the mechanism that regulates the metabolism of cadmium and zinc. The synthesis of this protein can be "induced" by oral or parenteral administration of either metal. The metallothionein mRNA content of liver polysomes is increased shortly after an influx of small amounts of either metal into hepatocytes.

  • Cited by: 73
  • Zinc protects against cadmium-induced toxicity in neonatal ...

    Nov 25, 2019  Dietary zinc reduces uptake but not metallothionein binding and elimination of cadmium in the springtail, Orchesella cincta. Environ Toxicol Chem.

  • Cited by: 2
  • Zinc, cadmium, metallothionein, and progesterone: Do they ...

    The increased sensitivity to cadmium during pregnancy could also be related to the effect of progesterone on zinc and cadmium metabolism through the actions of metallothionein (MT). MT is a low molecular weight protein believed to function in cadmium detoxification.

  • Cited by: 27
  • Cadmium toxicity and distribution in metallothionein-I and ...

    Dec 01, 1997  In the pre sent study cadmium-binding proteins (metallothionein equivalents), ... Administration of zinc enhanced the levels of cadmium-binding proteins in liver, small intestine, kidney, pancreas, and male sex organs, but not in cecum or brain of MT+/+ mice compared to zinc pretreated MT-/− mice. The cadmium LD50 was similar for MT-/−, MT+ ...

  • Cited by: 19
  • Metallothionein: a Cadmium and Zinc-containing Protein ...

    is characteristic of cadmium mercaptides, as indicated by the study of metallothionein and of cadmium complexes of mono- and dimercaptans. These spectral properties have been utilized in the examination of cadmium and zinc binding to thionein, the metal-free protein. A preliminary report has been given (2).

  • Metallothionein: Forgotten Antioxidant: Missing Puzzle ...

    In the brain, metallothionein is expressed as MT-3, and is a key antioxidant in the blood/brain barrier, capable of binding to and preventing brain exposure to cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper and other toxic metals. But what if metallothionein is decreased in the brain? Metallothionein Deficiency: The Alzheimer’s Connection

  • Zinc Metallothionein SpringerLink

    The protein was later named metallothionein (MT), with the prefix metallo referring to the fact that it contained both cadmium (2.9% per gram of dry protein) and zinc (0.6%) and the suffix thionein alluding to the relatively high sulfur content of the protein (4.1%) (Kaegi and Vallee 1960). When isolated from equine or human liver, MT contains ...

  • The Role of Metallothionein in Oxidative Stress

    Mar 15, 2013  Metallothionein has been shown to scavenge hydroxyl radicals in vitro, because of its cysteinyl thiolate groups Thornalley and Vasak showed that the rabbit liver metallothionein-1, which contains zinc and/or cadmium ions, appeared to scavenge free hydroxyl (•OH) and superoxide (O 2− •) radicals produced by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase ...

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  • Cadmium Binding Protein - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    The cadmium-binding protein metallothionein gene has generally been thought to be the major gene responsible for strain susceptibility to cadmium toxicity. Metallothionein-null mice were indeed more sensitive to certain effects of cadmium, including nephrotoxicity and testicular injuries (Liu et al., 2000).

  • Zinc as a countermeasure for cadmium toxicity Acta ...

    Apr 13, 2020  A mechanism for cadmium- and zinc-induced tolerance to cadmium toxicity: involvement of metallothionein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1976;37:403–14. PubMed Article CAS Google Scholar

  • (PDF) Crystals of Cadmium, Zinc Metallothionein

    Crystals of Cadmium, Zinc Metallothionein Article (PDF Available) in Environmental Health Perspectives 54:105-9 April 1984 with 40 Reads How we measure 'reads'

  • (PDF) Metallothionein: A cadmium- and zinc-containing ...

    Metallothionein: A cadmium- and zinc-containing protein from equine renal cortex Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Biological Chemistry 235:3460-5 January 1961 with 79 Reads

  • Cadmium, zinc, copper and metallothionein levels in the ...

    Cadmium, zinc, copper and metallothionein levels in the kidney and liver of humans from central Poland. Ewa M. Bem 1, Bronisław W. Kaszper 1, Czesław Orłowski 1, Jerzy K. Piotrowski 1,

  • Metallothionein synthesis and degradation: relationship to ...

    Metallothionein is an integral component of the mechanism that regulates the metabolism of cadmium and zinc. The synthesis of this protein can be "induced" by oral or parenteral administration of either metal. The metallothionein mRNA content of liver polysomes is increased shortly after an influx of small amounts of either metal into hepatocytes.

  • Pharmaceutical importance of zinc and metallothionein in ...

    especially on the zinc transporters and low-molecular proteins metallothioneins (MTs) of the molecular weight between 6 and 10 kDa, which were firstly discovered in a horse kidneys as the cadmium-binding protein. High affinity of metallothioneins to the zinc ions indicates their significant participation in the

  • (PDF) Cadmium, zinc, copper, and metallothionein levels in ...

    The levels of Cd, Zn, Cu and metallothionein (MT) were determined in renal cortex and liver of 75 subjects deceased in the period 1986–1989 in the area of Upper Silesia (Katowice). The mean age of the population studied was 53.6 ± 14.6 years. The

  • Function of Zinc Metallothionein: A Link between Cellular ...

    Metallothionein Induction Is Not Involved in Cadmium Accumulation in the Duodenum of Mice and Rats Fed Diets Containing High-Cadmium Rice or Sunflower Kernels and a Marginal Supply of Zinc

  • Metallothionein 2A gene polymorphisms in relation to ...

    In vitro degradation of apo-, zinc-, and cadmium-metallothionein by cathepsins B, C, and D. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1992;116:117-24. doi: 10.1016/0041-008x(92)90152-i. 28. Yang Y, Maret W, Vallee BL. Differential fluorescence labeling of cysteinyl clusters uncovers high tissue levels of thionein.

  • Metallothionein nanciswell blog

    Jun 09, 2014  The primary nutrient needed in the formation of metallothionein is zinc. Therefore, metals that compete with zinc such as mercury and cadmium will eventually disturb metallothionein function. Metallothionein is crucial to the body in regulating and coping with toxic metals. It envelopes metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium, binding with ...

  • METALLOTHIONEIN

    Since the level of cadmium is lower and that of zinc and copper higher in fetal than in maternal blood, this may suggest that placental MT may restrict cadmium while enhancing zinc and copper transport. Exp Gerontol 1993 Jan-Feb;28(1):17-38. Metallothionein expression and stress responses in aging human diploid fibroblasts.

  • Zinc Protects Against Cadmium-Induced Toxicity in Neonatal ...

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal and a prevalent environmental toxin that has been shown to induce significant cardiomyocyte apoptosis in neonatal murine engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs). In contrast, zinc (Zn) is a potent metallothionein (MT) inducer, which plays an important role in protection against Cd toxicity.

  • Control of zinc transfer between thionein, metallothionein ...

    Metallothionein (MT), despite its high metal binding constant ( K Zn = 3.2 × 1013 M−1 at pH 7.4), can transfer zinc to the apoforms of zinc enzymes that have inherently lower stability constants. To gain insight into this paradox, we have studied zinc transfer between zinc enzymes and MT. Zinc can be transferred in both directions—i.e., from the enzymes to thionein (the apoform of MT) and ...

  • Metallothioneins: Zinc, Cadmium, Mercury, and Copper ...

    Jan 28, 2004  A synthetic cadmium metallothionein gene (PMCd1syn) of Paramecium species: expression, purification and characteristics of metallothionein protein. Molecular Biology Reports 2013, 40 (2) , 983-997. DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2140-8. Eva Freisinger, Milan Vašák. Cadmium in

  • Metallothionein 2A gene polymorphisms in relation to ...

    In vitro degradation of apo-, zinc-, and cadmium-metallothionein by cathepsins B, C, and D. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1992;116:117-24. doi: 10.1016/0041-008x(92)90152-i. 28. Yang Y, Maret W, Vallee BL. Differential fluorescence labeling of cysteinyl clusters uncovers high tissue levels of thionein.

  • Metallothionein in Brain Disorders

    Metallothioneins are a family of proteins which are able to bind metals intracellularly, so their main function is to regulate the cellular metabolism of essential metals. There are 4 major isoforms of MTs (I–IV), three of which have been localized in the central nervous system. MT-I and MT-II have been localized in the spinal cord and brain, mainly in astrocytes, whereas MT-III has been ...

  • Metallothionein, Nitric Oxide and Zinc Homeostasis in ...

    Metallothionein plays less of a protective role in cadmium-metallothionein-induced nephrotoxicity than in cadmium-chloride-induced hepatotoxicity. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 276: 1216 – 1223. Google Scholar. PubMed Maret, W. (1994) Oxidative metal release from metallothionein via zinc-thiol/disulfide interchange. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...

  • Metallothionein and Cadmium Nephrotoxicity - Zahir Shaikh

    A majority of cadmium is retained in liver and kidney where it induces and binds to metallothionein - a low molecular weight sulfhydryl- rich protein. Intracellular metallothionein appears to function as a detoxifying protein. However, with continued exposure, the intracellular cadmium-metallothionein complex is released into the circulation.

  • METALLOTHIONEIN

    Since the level of cadmium is lower and that of zinc and copper higher in fetal than in maternal blood, this may suggest that placental MT may restrict cadmium while enhancing zinc and copper transport. Exp Gerontol 1993 Jan-Feb;28(1):17-38. Metallothionein expression and stress responses in aging human diploid fibroblasts.

  • Efflux of Endogenous Zinc Liberated From Metallothionein ...

    Efflux of endogenous zinc (Zn) from the liver was examined to aid elucidation of the mechanisms of the discriminative uptake between the essential heavy metal Zn and the nonessential heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Cd was injected intravenously into rats with or without pretreatment of a small dose of Cd

  • Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment - Hindawi

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and ...

  • Original Article Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate as an inducer ...

    Zinc is known to protect against cadmium toxici-ty in various biological systems (Webb, 1972; Early and Schnell, 1978), and the protective effects are generally due to induction of MT by zinc, which in turn sequesters cadmium from interactions with critical target molecules. Figure 1 shows the expression of MT in vascular endothe-

  • Cadmium – Vegan Health

    Related link: Zinc. Background on Cadmium. Cadmium is a common heavy metal found in soil due to the use of phosphate fertilizers . Cadmium has a long biological half-life and it can take 30 years for the body to rid itself of it . Cadmium toxicity can cause painful osteoporosis, a reduction in kidney function , and liver toxicity . Smokers tend ...

  • (PDF) Cadmium, zinc, copper, and metallothionein levels in ...

    The levels of Cd, Zn, Cu and metallothionein (MT) were determined in renal cortex and liver of 75 subjects deceased in the period 1986–1989 in the area of Upper Silesia (Katowice). The mean age of the population studied was 53.6 ± 14.6 years. The

  • Metabolism of cadmium, zinc and copper in the rat kidney ...

    Similarly, zinc deficiency affects primarily the complement of metals bound to metallothionein: zinc is markedly decreased and Cu is lowered to a smaller extent. Cadmium is unchanged. Control kidney, unexposed to Cd, normally contains a substantial amount of Zn,CuMT.

  • Cadmium Accumulation and Metallothionein Biosynthesis in ...

    This study investigated the distribution of cadmium (Cd) and the protein level of metallothionein (MT) and examined the relationship of Cd accumulation and the MT concentration in different tissues of freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana following Cd treatment. The mussels were exposed to Cd (4.21, 8.43, 16.86, 33.72 and 67.45 mg L-1) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively.

  • Metallothionein-3 - Wikipedia

    Metallothionein-3 (also known as Growth Inhibitory Factor) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT3 gene. It is a 68-amino acid peptide (20 of which are cysteine) that is abnormally under-expressed in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Metallothionein-3 is a member of the metallothionein family of proteins.. References

  • Regulation of cadmium(2+)/zinc(2+)-stimulated ...

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